With such different. This paper will analyze articles by leading African writers concerning the representation of the male-female relationship. Caribbean Identity in Kincaid's Annie John In his article "Negotiating Caribbean Identities," Stuart Hall attempts to relay to the reader the complications associated with assigning a single cultural identity to the Caribbean people. Even though the article is intended by the author to represent the Caribbean people as a splicing of a number of different cultures, the processes Hall highlights are noticeable on an individual scale in the main character of Jamaica Kincaid's novel, Annie John.
The mother-daughter relationship is a common topic throughout many of Jamaica Kincaid's novels. This essay however will explore the mother-daughter relationship in Lucy. Lucy tells the story of a young woman who escapes a West Indian island to North America to work as an au pair for Mariah and Lewis, a young couple, and their four girls.
As in her other books—especially Annie John—Kincaid uses the mother-daughter relationship. From the point of view of Xuela Claudette Desvarieux, Jamaica Kincaid presents a powerful account of how race, gender, class, and the power of the individual intermingle and clash in colonial society. Although I can easily expand the. Mother Nature nurtures the feminine soul in the abyssal waters that she liberates from the depravities of human civilization. The sedative spirit of the ocean and her progenies nourish the human psyche with the inspiration to pursue individuality and independence.
Secular literature documents the exclusion of the female gender. No one is born misogynistic. Misogyny is a taught practice. The main beneficiary of these unvoiced teachings are women themselves. Misogyny is not always displayed as an direct act of discrimination, it can manifest itself as the manipulation of another woman in order to get what you want or to move higher on the ladder of success. Instead, Pauline has always struggled to find her place in the world. I would just cry and cry….
After that, she was no longer tormented and she actually took on a leadership role. As a girl there were few options available for Kincaid. She would have liked to have attended university in Antigua and remained there after becoming a teacher or a librarian, but she was not given that opportunity.
Despite the shortcomings of her early education, she did acquire a strong background in English literature, studying the works of Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Keats, and the King James version of the Bible.
Disclosure statement No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Such medicine is homemade and can have adverse effects on the health of the girl. The islands that make up Indonesia, or what? She turned toward me, and was no longer my mother—she was a ball of fury, large, like a god. Kincaid's maternal grandmother, a Carib Indian, also played an important role in her early life. The facts of dependency that outlasts the departure of colonial government are logged in her blistering diatribe. After this move, she left no forwarding address and was cut off from her family until her return to Antigua 20 years later.
In , shortly after turning 17, Kincaid was sent to the United States to work as an au pair for an affluent family in Scarsdale, New York. She was expected to send money home to her family, but she would not. She received letters from home, but she did not open them. It was in this state of self-exile that Kincaid would shape her new life away from the unhappiness she had felt in Antigua. After this move, she left no forwarding address and was cut off from her family until her return to Antigua 20 years later.
While working in New York, Kincaid continued her education at a community college, earned a high school equivalency diploma, and began taking photography courses at the New School for Social Research. She later studied photography at Franconia College in New Hampshire on a scholarship, though she never earned a college diploma. Absolutely none. I didn't know there was such a world as the literary world. I didn't know anything, except maybe how to put one foot in front of the other. Although Kincaid was not fully aware of her literary ambitions during her childhood and early years in New York, she had gained much from her voracious reading, all of which was of an English literary tradition.
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She had never been exposed to West Indian literature. When speaking to Ferguson, she acknowledged that as a child she would imagine stories and conversations in her head, but she never wrote them down.
It was her experiences in photography that finally made her aware of writing. She told Ferguson, "I began to write poems. I began to write of my photographs—what I would take and [how] I would set them up. I would look at what I had written down, and that is how I would take the photograph. I would write down what I thought the picture should feel like. And I would try to take a picture of what I had written down. After three years as an au pair, Kincaid left to become a secretary, model, and backup singer in a New York club.
In , with bleached blond hair, Kincaid enjoyed a freewheeling city lifestyle, sharing with Garner that she once attended a Halloween party dressed as Josephine Baker with only some bananas wrapped around her waist. In , Elaine Potter Richardson changed her name to Jamaica Kincaid mainly to keep her anonymity since she feared her family would disapprove of her writing and mock her efforts. A strong friendship developed between the two and Kincaid began to accompany Trow when he researched bits for his column, adding her observations.
She submitted notes of her observations of the West Indian Day parade, and Shawn published the notes as a finished column. Beginning in , Kincaid contributed regularly to the magazine as a staff writer under Shawn's mentorship. Kincaid acknowledged that Shawn helped her develop her voice and encouraged her to continue writing stories.
They were married in The stories were marked by a lyrically poetic, incantatory, rhythmic voice. Perhaps the most-discussed piece in the collection is "Girl," which is one sentence uttered by a mother to her child, listing in repetitive scrutiny a series of commands. In this work, Kincaid writes a coming-of-age tale that focuses on the life of a young Caribbean girl.
The theme of the mother-daughter relationship in which a mother devastatingly severs her bond with her daughter is at its core. This work was well received and critics praised its rhythmic quality, evocative images, and universal themes. Many critics have noted that her most significant theme, that of the mother-daughter bond, represents the larger issue of the powerful and the powerless, particularly as this relationship operates in a colonial culture. The personal nature of so much of Kincaid's fiction is one of its salient features, and she admits that her difficult relationship with her own mother inspired her writing, though she maintains it was an act of salvation to write her thoughts down.
For me it is a matter of saving my life. I don't know what I would do if I didn't write.
It is a matter of living in the deepest way. Noting the autobiographical element to her writing, she asserted that "My writing has been very autobiographical. The events are true to me. They may not be true to other people. I think it is fair for my mother to say, 'This is not me. It is only the mother as the person I used to be perceived her….
For me it was really an act of saving my life, so it had to be autobiographical. Reviewers were divided over the angry tone expressed in both works. She ultimately skewers the white tourist who visits Antigua with no thought to the poverty and the long-endured oppression of the colonized natives, while also pointing out the corruption of the post-independent Antiguan government.
In her native Antigua, the government issued an informal ban on Kincaid, restricting her visits to the island from to Seemingly unaccepting of her resentment and frustrations, V.
Naipaul, maintaining that "where Naipaul is humane and appreciative of the dark corners of the human condition, Kincaid seems only vituperative and intemperate. Commentators note a more bitter tone to this novel in which Lucy will not bend to the powers that hold sway. However, most still commend Kincaid's storytelling abilities. The novel, set on the island of Dominica, presents the life of the narrator and the mother whom she never knew who had died in childbirth.
It went on to win the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award. This highly personal work addresses not only the relationship Kincaid had with her brother—the two were alike in personality though they had spent little time together—as well as the continued themes of her resentful relationship with her mother and the devastating outcomes of a post-colonial culture.